Shell company prices vary and depend on the market sector, the percentage holding, and the balance structure of the company, so there is no “price list”. Shell costs are individual and must be determined according to the case at hand. However, it is certain that the costs for acquiring a shell company are clearly lower than those of a bank-assisted IPO, which can be between € 1 million and x million, depending on the issue volume and the share placement success for bank customers. Legal and tax due diligence costs generally amount to several hundred thousand Euros, as the advisors and banks are liable for the issue prospectus. “Every stone” of the IPO candidates must therefore be “overturned”, so to speak. Following the 1998 IPO boom, the banks have been lavished with a glut of so-called prospectus liability claims. In order to prevent this (as far as possible) in future, due diligence today is extremely thorough.